Linaria vulgaris (Jacob’s ladder, butter and eggs, eggs and bacon, flaxweed, ramsted, wild snapdragon, Ransted-weed, toadflax, Dalmatian toadflax, common toadflax, continental weed, patterns and clogs, pedlar’s basket, fluellin, devil’s ribbon, eggs and collops, buttered haycocks)

description:  herbaceous perennial

place of origin:  Mediterranean Europe, southwest Asia

urban habitat: commonly found in vacant lots, disturbed meadows, rubble dumps, pavement openings, along stone walls, highway banks, and railroads; thrives in full sun; tolerates drought conditions and compacted soil.

ecological function: disturbance-adapted colonizer; food for bees and other wildlife.

history: Linaria vulgaris was introduced to North America by European settlers in the 1600’s, for medicinal and ornamental uses. The plant was used by Native American tribes as sedative, to treat diarrhea, and in ceremonial rituals. L. vulgaris has also been used as an insecticide, diuretic, laxative, to treat jaundice, hemorrhoids, gall bladder problems and skin eruptions. The plant can be used to produce a yellow dye. L. vulgaris is classified as a noxious weed in many US states and Canadian provinces.